Client Side Rendering in SharePoint

At this article I`d like to introduce Client Side Rendering (CSR) and how to use it on a real life example. Despite the fact that the CSR was introduced together with the SharePoint 2013 and have been making us happy with new UI possibilities for a few years already, it calls out questions. For example, developers are still using custom web parts to make customized list views. Instead of customizing standard SharePoint views with simple JavaScript.
Examples in topic are on typescript.